Wednesday, December 28, 2011

Introduction to nanotechnology

Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and manipulation of matter at the nanoscale (0.1-100 nm), while nanotechnology is design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by control form size and nanoscale. The term commonly used nanotechnology to refer to both disciplines.

A nanometer is a unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter (1 x 10-9 m). At this scale, physical, chemical or biological properties of materials, objects, systems, etc., fundamentally different properties of the same size micro / macroscopic so that research and development of nanotechnology aims to understand and to create improved materials, devices and systems that exploit these new properties. In this regard, nanotechnology promises a better understanding of the nature and life itself, where the size and shape are important.

In turn, physics, chemistry, materials science, simulation and Engineering Computing, converge to the same principles theoretical and technical driver enabling the technological advance exceptional synergy and interdisciplinary initiatives taken by different sectors and countries.

In General, experts worldwide agree that nanotechnology has the potential to develop tools for making and influence procedures and even doctors unprecedented sur la société et des relations internationales. Therefore, it is considered a mega trend and a disruptive technology. For example, nanotechnology promises to increase the efficiency of the industry and develop traditional radical news from emerging technology applications. Internet, until recently called the revolution of the next generation unlike this new phenomenon blades.

There are many areas in which nanotechnology have potential applications. Progress will affect a wide range of industries such as cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, appliances, medical personnel, building, communications, security and defence, automotive and aerospace industries, among others. The environment will also benefit, while energy production will be less expensive and cleaner and more environmentally friendly materials were used.

The market is now available for such applications. For example, nanostructured materials are already used in products like tennis balls, golf or bowling (a way to reduce the number of tours are the same), to tire manufacturing high performance in the manufacture of fabrics with properties anti blemish or wrinkles, cosmetics, medicines and new therapeutic treatments, nanostructured membrane filtration water and sanitation environment; improving production processes through the introduction of more sustainable materials and efficient (industrial and agro-industrial) in the design of new materials for use in electronics, the aeronautics industry and almost all of the transport.

Now with nanoscience and nanotechnology are still at an early stage of research and development, where research and most of the investments are directed towards understanding of phenomena in nanoscale, processes and the creation of new materials or nano-structures. Technology trends towards the year 2020 in the world pointing to the transition from nanomaterials Nanosystems, thanks to the construction of systems at the nanoscale requires the combined use of the statutes of the nanoscale, biological principles, information technology and systems integration.

Nanotechnology-oriented innovations will meet a large number of current problems and needs of society and provide an enormous challenge for the future industrial and economic activities which often and is considered to be the engine of the next industrial revolution. Among the wide range of possibilities and after execution of the dispersion of initial positions it is illegal to questions about the areas where she focuses on our knowledge of our Paris and challenges assumed in order risk, development and implementation expectations.

Speakers in detail the origins of nanotechnology since its origin, classification, materials and their applications in various industries all with the intent to understand fully the nanotechnology research area and, thus, to calculate its vital importance in society.

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